Noun(1) lining consisting of material with a high melting point; used to line the inside walls of a furnace
Adjective(1) not responding to treatment(2) temporarily unresponsive or not fully responsive to a process or stimulus(3) stubbornly resistant to authority or control
(1) Centromeric DNA, being highly repetitive, has been refractory to molecular analysis.(2) Threats of the same treatment prevented refractory congregations from using disused churches they had hired for private worship.(3) However, this first requires expression of Nef in a resting T cell that is refractory to infection.(4) Capulet's attitude to his refractory daughter is precisely that of my Muslim patients' fathers.(5) It is not known why P-GUS in line 19 was refractory to FLP activity.(6) The propagative stages of the nematode occur exclusively in adult male crickets; thus adult females crickets are refractory to infection.(7) When stimulated after the refractory phase (2 s after the spontaneous reversal or later), the cells responded within ~ 2 s to the stimulus.(8) Some compounds of hafnium are also used as refractory substances to line the inside of high-temperature ovens.(9) Kippenberger, even at his most refractory , is an artist of energy, sharp insight, great skill and considerable integrity.(10) Although two additional histidine residues are potentially accessible, we focused on the two histidines unique to cx 50 because cx 46 hemichannels were refractory to modification by DEPC.(11) Graphite is also used as a refractory in high-temperature furnaces, to make black paint, in explosives and matches, and in certain kinds of cathode ray tubes.(12) Because bioreductive drugs are activated to form highly effective cytotoxins under hypoxic conditions, they can be used to inactivate hypoxic tumor cells that are refractory to the direct cytotoxicity of hypericin-PDT.(13) Such refractory materials as silicon dioxide and aluminum oxide are so severely attacked that their use is hazardous.(14) Also under investigation as possible container materials are certain types of refractory ceramics.(15) Furthermore the labeling of the MBP-SEC preparation was refractory to PNGase F, which hydrolyzes N - but not O-linkages.(16) At the time-point of stimulation, the cells had recovered from the refractory phase and were fully responsive, whereas nearly none of the cells had reversed spontaneously.
(1) refractory period :: refraktêre periode
1. obstinate ::
2. recalcitrant ::
3. stubborn ::
1. amenable ::
2. compliant ::
3. docile ::
4. obedient ::
5. submissive ::
6. tractable ::
Different Formsrefractories, refractory
English to Afrikaans Dictionary: refractory
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Tags for the entry "refractory"
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